INCA 283 History of Indigenous Media in Canada
Click here for 2016 Winter Syllabus
WEEK 1 – Monday, January 11 (INTRODUCTIONS)
See also www.incaonline.ca
Survey due next week
2. Review INCA program
- INCA 200 Summer Institute in May-June
- Watch INCA Inspired 2013 (find it in INCA Projects)
- INCA 290 Internships
- NAJA conference in September 2016
- Review 40th Anniversary Alumni publication project – Roles and Opportunities
2. Review Syllabus
3. Discuss strategies for completing Assignment #1 – due next week
Assignment: Survey of Aboriginal media – Students will conduct Internet and library research to complete the chart/template provided by the instructor for this assignment. Click here for template INCA 283 survey template
The goal of this assignment is to have students start to appreciate the range and variety of Aboriginal publications, broadcasters (radio and television) and other media producers in Canada. The completed assignment should include the completed chart with 20 organizations and a 500-word “reflection” about what was learned through researching this assignment. This assignment will be the basis of a discussion and exercise in class. No late assignments will be accepted.
Marks: Completed table/5; Reflection/5
3. Discussion: What do you already know about media – mainstream and Aboriginal?
Example of the power of media: “Mrs. Universe on Canada’s missing and murdered indigenous women” in The Globe and Mail. Click here for article and video
4. This is so cool: MyKNet.org
5. Isuma TV
“Otacimow: One Who Tells Stories” produced by Jarrett Crowe. Available at http://www.isuma.tv/jarrett-crowe/otacimow-one-who-tells-stories
5. Watch The Seeing Each Other: Canadian Media and Aboriginal People panel, held in Nanaimo, BC in January 2014, which examines the role Canada’s media plays in shaping the relationship between Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples. Watch 28:45 – 1:02:00)
Don Kelly, Fish Out of Water 28:45 – 32:35
Duncan McCue 32:35 – 45:00
Judith Lavoie 45:00 – 53:00
Wab Kinew 53:00 – 1:02:00
Reading assignment for Week 2
There are two objectives for your reading/watching assignments:
- I want you to get a sense of the way that literacy and books were interpreted when they were first introduced to “Indians” in the late 1500s and early 1600s. This is the subject of “The Power of Print in the Eastern Woodlands” by James Axtell in The William and Mary Quarterly, Vol. 44, No. 2 (Apr., 1987), pp.300-309.\
- I want you to learn about the Cherokee Phoenix, which is likely the first publication by “Indians” in North America. The first edition was released on February 21, 1828, and the editor included an explanation “To the Public,” which explained the purpose of the publication. There is also a good background explanation of The Cherokee Phoenix, produced by the Hunter Library. There are also a number of scholarly articles that are of interest, including on published in the Chronicles of Oklahoma in 1947, Cherokee Phoenix- Pioneer of Indian Journalism by Robert Martin pp. 102-118.
For background on Sequoyah (George Gist) and the Cherokee writing system he developed, you should watch the following short videos:
WEEK 2 – Monday, January 18
- INTRODUCTION OF LITERACY
- EARLY PUBLICATIONS
- CANADIAN MEDIA AND NATIVE PEOPLE
- SURVEY OF NATIVE MEDIA CANADA
Assignments – Assignment #1 due today
- Review of Early Indian Newspapers in US and Canada
The Cherokee Phoenix was likely the first “Indian” publication in North America. It was published starting in 1828
The Indian, published in Hagarsville, Ontario by the The Indian Publishing Co. This issue is from 1885, with Managing Editor/Head Chief Kah-ke-wa-quo-na-by (Dr. P. E. Jones)
The Native Voice started publishing 1946, under the editorship of veteran Jack Beynon, for the Union of BC Indian Chiefs
The Indian Outlook was publishing from 1960-1963 by a partnership of the Federation of Saskatchewan Indians and the Regina Committee on Minorities.
The New Breed started publishing in 1969 under the editorship of Professor Howard Adams, a Metis from northern Saskatchewan who had been educated at the University of California during the 1960s and returned to Saskatchewan to teach at the U of S.
2. Survey of Indigenous media in Canada
3. Discuss assignment: Major research project and presentation for the class??
4. Preview and assign chapters from Seeing Red: A History of Natives in Canadian Newspapers
“Seeing Red by Carmen Robertson and Mark Anderson – Each student to select one chapter and prepare a PowerPoint presentation for the class (max 10 slides, images on every slide, max. 20 words per slide)
Review PowerPoint of Seeing Red: A History of Natives in Canadian Newspapers in Canadian Journal of Communication, Vol. 38 (1) NOTE: max. 20 slides, images on every slide, max. 20 words per slide
Week 3 – Jan. 25
- SEEING RED: A History of Natives in Canadian Newspapers
- COMMUNITY RADIO
- KEY DATES
1.Student presentations of Seeing Red: A History of Natives in Canadian Newspapers chapters
3) Discuss assignment: Presentation – Aboriginal media organization
4) Watch CBQM, NFB, 2009
Reading for next week: “Indigenous journalists are changing the news in Saskatchewan,” in J-Source.
WEEK 4 – Monday, February 1
Assignment #2 – Interview with a representative of a media organization
1) Preview Speaking and Hearing by Shannon Avison and Michael Meadows, 2002
2) Review Aboriginal Language Broadcasting in Canada, 2004
3) Watch CBQM
Reading assignment for next week:
Avison, Shannon and Michael Meadows. 2000. “Speaking and Hearing: Aboriginal Newspapers and the Public Sphere in Canada and Australia.” Canadian Journal of Communication, Vol. 25. No. 3.
WEEK 5 – Monday, February 8
- CANADIAN BROADCASTING
- ABORIGINAL BROADCASTING
2) CBC has had an important role in Canada. It is a public broadcaster, set up in 1952 to provide Canadian content.
Click here for 1952: CBC Television Debuts (Video 4:17)
3) Communication satellites radically increased the ability of CBC to get its programming to every community in Canada. In 1974, the Accelerated Coverage Plan (ACP) gave CBC marching orders to get its signal into every community in Canada with a population of at least 500 people.
Click here for The Anik satellite and northern Canada (Audio 8:00)
Click here for Anik A1 launching: bridging the gap (Video 2:11)
Click here for Launching the Communications Technology Satellite (Audio 7:19)
Click here for The Digital Universe Grows with Anik F1
CBC’s Doc Zone aired a compelling program called A TV Renaissance. Click here to watch A TV Renaissance
CBC now has three avenues for showcasing Aboriginal stories:
CBC Aboriginal on the CBC.ca website managed by INCA student Connie Walker
Unreserved – a one-hour weekly network radio program hosted by Rosanna Deerchild
CBC Firsthand – Connie Walker on Residential Schools
And CBC documentaries that air on THE NATIONAL |
Including this one by Connie Walker about Makayla Sault, the 11-year-old Ontario First Nation girl who refused chemotherapy to pursue traditional indigenous medicine and other alternative treatments. Click on photo. (Story 1:54)
Including Duncan McCue’s story (18:43) about Marlene Bird that aired on Jan 29, 2015
Marlene Bird: Aboriginal woman’s story of struggle and survival – Marlene Bird was beaten, assaulted and set on fire six months ago. Duncan McCue shares her heart wrenching story of struggle and survival.
Electronic Drums: Aboriginal and Native Radio in Canada and the USA by Laurence Etling, Valdosta State University. Southern Journal of Canadian Studies, volume 1, number 1 (pages 119-133) November 2005
- Support for Aboriginal broadcasting in Canada has centred around Aboriginal language preservation and promotion. This report by Jennifer David, Debwe Communications Inc. is a great survey/summary of the state of Aboriginal language programming in 2004. Click here for Aboriginal_Language_and_Broadcasting_2004
- Laurence Etling’s article Electronic Drums: Aboriginal and Native Radio in Canada and the USA (2005) is interesting because it expands the story to include Native American radio programming. (His article is in the Readings section of this blog site.)
Week 6 – Reading Week Break – no class
Reading assignment for Week 7
Soules, Marshall. 2007. “Harold Adams Innis: The Bias of Communications and Monopolies of Power.” http://www.media-studies.ca/articles/innis.htm
Tremblay, Gaetan. 2012. “From Marshall McLuhan to Harold Innis or From the Global Village to the World Empire.” Canadian Journal of Communication, Vol. 37 (2012), 561-575. Click here for article 2662-7688-2-PB
Week 7 – Feb. 22
CANADIAN COMMUNICATION THEORY: INNIS AND MCLUHAN
Harold Innis: The Bias of Communications and Monopolies of Power
Marshall Mcluhan – The Medium is the Message
“The medium is the message” is a phrase coined by Marshall McLuhan meaning that the form of a medium embeds itself in the message, creating a symbiotic relationship by which the medium influences how the message is perceived…. The phrase was introduced in his most widely known book, Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man, published in 1964. McLuhan proposes that a medium itself, not the content it carries, should be the focus of study. He said that a medium affects the society in which it plays a role not only by the content delivered over the medium, but also by the characteristics of the medium itself.
For McLuhan, it was the medium itself that shaped and controlled “the scale and form of human association and action”.
Extending the argument for understanding the medium as the message itself, he proposed that the “content of any medium is always another medium” – thus, the content of writing is speech, print is that of writing and print itself is the content of the telegraph.
Hence in Understanding Media, McLuhan describes the “content” of a medium as a juicy piece of meat carried by the burglar to distract the watchdog of the mind. This means that people tend to focus on the obvious, which is the content, to provide us valuable information, but in the process, we largely miss the structural changes in our affairs that are introduced subtly, or over long periods of time.As society’s values, norms, and ways of doing things change because of the technology, it is then we realize the social implications of the medium. These range from cultural or religious issues and historical precedents, through interplay with existing conditions, to the secondary or tertiary effects in a cascade of interactions that we are not aware of.
Reading assignment for Week 8 :
Canadian Broadcasting Act, 1991 available at http://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/PDF/B-9.01.pdf or click INCA 283 Broadcasting Act and
Broadcasting Decision CRTC 2013-383 (APTN Licence Renewal) available at http://www.crtc.gc.ca/eng/archive/2013/2013-383.pdf or click INCA 283 CRTC decision to renew APTN 2013-383
Roth, Lorna. “The Delicate Acts of Colour-Balancing”: Multiculturalism and Canadian Television Broadcasting Policies and Practices.” Canadian Journal of Communication, Vol. 23, No. 4. Available at http://www.cjc-online.ca/index.php/journal/article/view/1061/967 or click INCA 283 The Delicate Act of Colour Balancing by Lorna
Week 8 – Feb. 29
MAGIC IN THE SKY
Strategies for completing APTN program review and presentation:
Ryan, Maureen, TV critic, Huffington Post. 2012. “How to be a TV critic.” Available at http://www.huffingtonpost.com/maureen-ryan/how-to-be-a-tv-critic_b_1146322.html
Morgan, Kori. “How to Write a Television Show Review.” Available at http://www.ehow.com/how_2123321_write-television-show-review.html
David, Jennifer. 2004. “Aboriginal Language Broadcasting in Canada: An overview and recommendations to the task force on Aboriginal languages and culture.” Available at http://aptn.ca/corporate/PDFs/Aboriginal_Language_and_Broadcasting_2004.pdf or click here INCA 283 Jennifer David Aboriginal_Language_and_Broadcasting_2004
Week 9 – March 7
1.Aboriginal language broadcasting
Week 10 – March 14
Week 11 – March 21 (APTN Program presentations)
- Student Presentations: APTN Programs
Week 12 – March 28 (Exam)
- Examination – this is a comprehensive exam and will cover all readings, discussions and presentations from the semester
Week 13 – April 4 (APTN Pitches)
WEEK 14 – Monday, April 11
Assignments – APTN pitches are due
- Cherokee Phoenix and Indian Advocate at http://onlinebooks.library.upenn.edu/webbin/serial?id=cherokeephoenixentryId=1171869¤tSection=1161468&productid=5
- Cherokee Phoenix at http://www.aboutnorthgeorgia.com/ang/Cherokee_Phoenix
- Review Cherokee Phoenix located at http://www.cherokeephoenix.org/
- Read “The Power of Print in the Eastern Woodlands” by James Axtell in The William and Mary Quarterly, Vol. 44, No. 2 (Apr., 1987), pp.300-309. The Power of Print
Aboriginal Media in Canada: Cultural Politics and Communication Practices by Marian Bredin, 1995. PhD dissertation. McGill University. 509 pages
Click here for the INCA 283 course blog for Winter 2015
Click here for the INCA 283 course blog for Winter 2014